Buffaloes are integral to Indian livestock sector followed by others ruminant species. India possesses 199.1 million cattle and 105.3 million buffaloes and ranks first in milk production in global world mainly contributed by buffaloes (DAHD, 2010). But the milk productivity is much lower due to various reproductive and non-reproductive disorders. The success of buffalo husbandry lies in optimal reproductive rhythm as well as disease control of animals round the year. Reproductive function may be affected by the management, disease and genetic constituent of the animal. Although much advancement have been made in controlling reproductive diseases in cattle and buffaloes, serious losses are still going on and as such infertility remains a major economic problem and its incidence appears to be rising in India also. However the impact of infertility in terms of economic losses in Indian livestock is not available.
Reproductive efficiency in buffaloes can be obtained by optimum fertility of buffaloes. A sound reproductive cyclicity is essential for ensuring regularity of calving paving way for profitable dairy farming. But this is hindered by the occurrence of various reproductive disorders from infectious and non-infectious sources. Reproductive disorders are multi-factorial problems which depending on their nature and severity produces varying degrees of suboptimal reproductive performance. Moreover these, there are various sources of non-reproductive or general health problems which have an adverse on the reproductive performance.
The major reproductive problems affecting buffaloes are
The pre-parturient complications conditions lead to parturition associated problems as well as delayed involution of the uterus and metritis. Parturition associated problems include dystocia, still birth, abortions, retained placenta etc. Stillbirth and dystocia have been recognized as the most important factors compromising the future reproductive life of the animal. They increase the odds of developing metritis and retained placenta. Such conditions often cause delayed uterine involution and predispose to secondary infections and abnormalities in the resumption of ovarian cyclicity. For optimization of reproductive performance, the reproductive health and management in buffalo demands critical evaluation and monitoring of the present scenario in buffaloes and its therapeutic measures.