Various biotechnologies available at present for enhancing buffalo reproduction include artificial insemination, multiple ovulation embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization, cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, production of calves of predetermined sex and cloning. The technologies of future include somatic cell cloning, stem cells and their applications, genetic analysis and gene transfer.
Application of biotechnologies in buffalo has helped in boosting milk production, improving reproduction, faster growth of elite animals and controlling diseases. research to make biomedical use of licestock species is in progress. Genetic improvement programme in buffaloes, based mainly on performance and progeny testing, have been slow in changing the genetic merit of buffaloes in village herds. Genetic improvement methods that are being tested include open nucleus breeding system with embryo transfer in riverine buffaloes and cross breeding for swamp buffaloes. ONBS technique enables the production of more than one offspring of the desired type of family e.g. full and half sibs for evaluation of males or females. selection in this scheme is on the basis of full and half sibs rather than on the progeny or pedigree.