Infertility caused by acquired /environment or congenital/hereditary causes. Infertility caused by physiological, anatomical, infectious causes. Moreover reproductive problems in buffaloes can be classified as major (anestrum, repeat breeding and endometritis) and minor (cystic ovarian degeneration, parturient disorders). Various infertility problems of buffalo in order of incidence is as follows: anestrum, endometritis, repeat breeding, dystocia, uterine torsion, prolapse. The incidence of reproductive disorders in buffaloes ranges from 4.66% to 12.66%. Infertility in buffaloes is mainly contributed by anestrus; repeat breeding, infectious diseases of reproductive system and post-parturient disorders which indirectly leads to infertility.
The various causes contributing to infertility are nutritional, hormonal, management and infections. Poor feeding is an important factor contributing to the infertility in buffaloes. Nutritional deficiency in micro and macronutrient causes impairment in the production, secretion and action of various hormones as well as growth factors. Stress during summer season is another factor causing summer anestrum as well as increased repeat breeding conditions in buffaloes. Both specific and non-specific infections of the reproductive system also play a major role in disrupting the normal cyclicity of the animal contributing to infertility. The most common pathogens isolated from the endometritis cases are E.coli, Cornyebacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, virus, fungi and mycoplasma. Archanobacterium pyogenes , Fusobacterium necrophorum and Bacteroides spp are also associated with uterine infection. Nevertheless, these organisms either alone or in combination with other bacteria causes uterine infection.